VIEWS FROM UPPER EGYPT SCREEN SAVER v1.1
Copyright 2000 www.BeauxArtsUSA.com
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Certain features are configurable under the Screen Saver window. The
each image is presented can be changed (default: 10 seconds), the image size can
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Windows system tray. Double click on the icon to
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The "Views from Upper Egypt" screen saver contains original photographs
various sites in Upper Egypt. All material is copyright 2000 Beaux Arts Antiques
& Armour. BeauxArtsUSA and www.BeauxArtsUSA.com are trade marks of Beaux Arts
Antiques & Armour. Windows 95/98/NT/2000 are trade marks of Microsoft Corporation.
No warranty or liability for the use of this screen saver is expressed
implied. The screen saver has been tested thoroughly on various computers using
the Windows operating systems, but the manufacturer will not be held responsible for
any possible problems resulting from the use of this product.
Registered users are licensed to use this program on multiple computers
single family residence AND on a single computer in a business environment.
Commercial users should register one copy per installation or inquire about a
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five computers. Send comments and inquiries to Egypt@BeauxArtsUSA.com.
SCREEN SAVER CONTENTS
1. Anpu (Anubis)
2. Southern Colossus of Memnon
3. Workers' village of Deir el-Medina (homes)
4. Workers' village of Deir el-Medina (streets)
5. Hieroglyphs (Temple of Hathor)
6. Hatshepsut's Temple (Deir el-Bahari)
7. Nile cattle
8. Pharaoh making an offering*
9. Amam (Ammit)*
10. Ramesseum Inner Court Yard*
11. Fallen Colossus of Ramesses II (Shelley's "Ozymandias")
12. Hypostyle Hall at the Ramesseum
13. Hypostyle Hall at the Ramesseum (b)*
14. Ceiling detail from the Hypostyle Hall*
15. Ramesses II making an offering
16. Ramesseum columns*
17. Ramesses II granite head*
18. Ramesseum granaries
19. Nile field*
20. Temple of Hathor (Dendera)
21. Hathor-faced columns (Dendera)*
22. Entrance to underground crypt (Dendera)*
23. Hathor (Dendera)*
24. Sacred Necklace of Hathor (Dendera)*
25. Sacred Lake (Temple of Hathor)
26. Nile felucca
27. Luxor sunset
[* seen after registration]
DESCRIPTIONS OF IMAGES
Ancient Egypt was traditionally divided into two geographic regions
differences in traditions, local gods, and culture. Lower Egypt is the Northern
region (the lower portion of the Nile River which flows from South to North)
along the Nile Delta, including Memphis, Giza (location of the Great Pyramids),
Alexandria, and modern Cairo. Upper Egypt centers around ancient Thebes (modern
Luxor) and includes Karnac, Luxor Temple, Dendera, Philae, Abu Simbel, and the
Valley of the Kings. Egypt had been unified from around 3,000 BCE but remained
the "Land of the Two Kingdoms" throughout its history. This screen saver
contains images from selected sites in Upper Egypt.
ANPU (also ANUBIS)
Anpu is the Egyptian god of the dead and is an important figure in the
resurrection after death. He is usually depicted leading the deceased to the
weighing of the heart, but here he is seen seated in the opening panel at the
Ptolemy IV Temple on the West Bank of Thebes (near Deir el-Medina). This temple
contains the best preserved mural of the Weighing of the Heart in the Hall of
Judgment. The vivid colors captured in this image resulted from the accidental
discharge of a photographic strobe. Bright lights (including photographic
strobes) are banned from the ruins because of possible damage from thousands of
visitors wishing to obtain the best quality photographs. Compare the intensity
of these colors with those seen in the image of Ammit from the same mural (see
SOUTHERN COLOSSUS OF MEMNON
The Colossi of Memnon are located on the West Bank of Thebes. The two statues of
Amenhotep III (1391-1353 BCE) are the only remnants of his extensive mortuary
temple that was constructed here in the Nile flood plain. The Romans incorrectly
identified the statues as Memnon, the son of Eos. The common name -- "Colossi of
Memnon" -- reflects this misattribution. The image is of the Southern Colossus.
WORKERS' VILLAGE AT DEIR EL-MEDINA
The village at Deir el-Medina was the home for workers who constructed the
various tombs on the West Bank, including the tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
The village is a short distance from the Temple of Ptolemy IV and about an
hour's walk to the Valley of the Kings. Deir el-Medina has been a rich find
archeologically, because of its personal artifacts, written records, and
well-preserved mud brick dwellings (Unlike the stone constructed temples and
pyramids, mud brick dwellings are rare because of deterioration from wind and
The hieroglyphs are from an outside wall of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera.
Much of the temple's outer wall is covered with deeply carved hieroglyphs as is
the style for most temples. Originally, the hieroglyphs were brightly painted.
(See the Hypostyle Hall of the Ramesseum [below] for an example.)
The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is located at Deir el-Bahari on the West Bank of
Thebes. She was one of a number of women who ruled Egypt during the dynastic
period. Indeed, ancient Egypt was far more progressive on 'women's rights' than
later Greek and Roman cultures and even more progressive than most of Western
society until the beginning of the 20th Century.
Grazing cattle make good use of the lush vegetation found on the banks of the
Nile. Cattle have been domesticated in Egypt for over 5,000 years. The dense
palm groves found along the banks of the Nile appear to provide an abundance of
raw material for construction, but the quality of this wood is very poor. Wood
was a scarce and valuable commodity in ancient Egypt, necessitating dwelling
construction from mud bricks. Much of the lumber used in ancient Egypt was
imported from the region around modern Lebanon.
PHARAOH MAKING AN OFFERING
A Pharaoh is depicted making an offering of incense to a goddess. Offerings,
both real and symbolic (as depicted here), were an important component of
ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies. From the temple wall at Dendera.
AMAM (also AMMIT)
From the mural depicting the Judgment Hall at the Ptolemy IV Temple
(Deir el-Medina), Ammit eagerly awaits the Weighing of the Heart. After death
the souls of the "unjustified" (e.g., those wicked in life) were devoured by
Ammit. This is the worse fate that could befall one in ancient Egyptian culture.
RAMESSEUM INNER COURT YARD
The Ramesseum is the Mortuary Temple of Ramesses II. Like most temples, the
Ramesseum contained several inner court yards used for various ceremonies.
FALLEN COLOSSUS OF RAMESSES II
This is Shelley's "Ozymandias," located in the Ramesseum on the West Bank of
I met a traveler from an antique land
Who said: "Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. . . . Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed;
And on the pedestal these words appear:
'My name is Ozymandias, kings of kings;
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!'
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away."
["Ozymandias," Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)]
HYPOSTYLE HALL & CEILING DETAIL AT THE RAMESSEUM
The fallen Colossus of Ramesses II can be seen in the distance in the first
image. The third image in the group shows well-preserved paint near the ceiling.
This 3000 year old paint gives a faint glimpse of how the brightly colored
Hypostyle Hall must have originally appeared.
RAMESSES II MAKING AN OFFERING
Ramesses II making an offering to the god Amun and his consort Mut. Amun was the
primary god of ancient Thebes. The face of Ramesses II (standing figure) has
been chiseled out to obliterate his image. This was common practice during early
Christian times when the Copts (i.e., early Egyptian Christians) were trying to
eradicate all traces of the ancient Egyptian religion identified with the
Ramesses II is depicted making offerings to several gods, including Amun, Ptah,
RAMESSES II GRANITE HEAD
This large granite head is from a fallen colossus of Ramesses II. There are more
surviving images of Ramesses II than of any other pharaoh, largely because of
the vast number of monuments constructed during his 67-year rule of Egypt.
The temples required a large staff to perform the religious ceremonies and for
temple maintenance. Food for the staff was stored in the temple's granaries
which are constructed from mud brick. A grinding stone used for milling grains
can be seen in the lower left hand corner.
Before the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the annual Nile floods provided
rich fertilization that supported dense vegetation along the banks of the Nile.
Today chemical fertilizers must be used which create a significant pollution
problem that was nonexistent before controlling the Nile floods.
TEMPLE OF HATHOR
This Ptolemaic temple at Dendera is located about 48 km north of Luxor.
Constructed between 125 B.C.E. and 60 A.D., the present temple occupies a site
reportedly in continuous religious use since the Age of the Children of Horus
(i.e., eons before the dynastic period). Archeological evidence indicates that
a temple has been here from at least the reign of Pepi I (2345-2181 B.C.E.)
during the 6th Dynasty, and other artifacts have been found that predate the
dynastic period. Some of the Hathor-faced columns can be seen in the distance.
HATHOR-FACED COLUMNS (DENDERA)
The face of Hathor has been chiseled by early Christians who used parts of this
temple for their religious services.
ENTRANCE TO CRYPT (DENDERA)
This is the entrance to one of the several subterranean chambers at the Temple
of Hathor. Although presumably used to store temple supplies and instruments,
the underground chambers are highly decorated as seen in the following images
of the goddess Hathor and her Sacred Necklace.
Hathor is depicted here in her more human form, retaining her cow's horns and
ears. She is a complex goddess, associated with both joy and happiness and with
near destruction of humanity for transgressions against her father Ra. Pilgrims
journeyed to Hathor's temple to celebrate the New Year with music, dancing, and
rapturous consumption of alcoholic beverages. Note that the image of Hathor is
sometimes confused with that of Isis who is often depicted with cow's horns
symbolizing her nourishment of the child Horus.
SACRED NECKLACE (MENAT) OF HATHOR (DENDERA)
One of the identifying features of the goddess Hathor is her sacred necklace
or "menat." This broad collar, like the sistrum she is often seen holding, is
symbolic of her power and magic, although these symbols were also used
frequently with other ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses.
SACRED LAKE (Temple of Hathor, Dendera)
The Sacred Lake was a necessary element of an Egyptian temple and was used for
purification rites (cf. Christian baptism). Although this lake has long dried
up, it still provides a sanctuary for vegetation in the otherwise inhospitable
The felucca is the traditional boat used to navigate the Nile since the Arab
conquest. When the winds are low, the boat is rowed upstream by a single
The view across the Nile from a balcony at the New Winter Palace Hotel in Luxor.
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